from PhysioNet, the research resource for complex physiologic signals

Recent Publications from PhysioNet

Journal articles


  1. Burykin A, Costa M, Peng C-K, Goldberger AL, Buchman TG. Generating Signals with Multiscale Time Irreversibility: The Asymmetric Weierstrass Function. Complexity 2011;16:29-38.

  2. Celi LAG, Tang RJ, Villarroel M, Davidzon GA, Lester WT, Chueh HC. A clinical database-driven approach to decision support: Predicting mortality among patients with acute kidney injury. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2011 Mar;2(1):97-110

  3. Guo D, Peng C-K, Mietus JE, Liu Y, Wu HL, Sun RS, Thomas RJ. ECG-derived cardiopulmonary analysis of pediatric sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Medicine 2011;12:384-389. PMID: 21396891

  4. Hug C, Clifford GD, Reisner AT. Clinician blood pressure documentation of stable intensive care patients: an intelligent archiving agent has a higher association with future hypotension. Crit Care Med, 39(5):1006-1014, May 2011. [Epub ahead of print]. (doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31820eab8e) (PMID:21336136) (PMCID:3102134)

  5. Leistedt SJ-J, Linkowski P, Lanquart J-P, Mietus JE, Davis RB, Goldberger AL, Costa MD. Decreased neuroautonomic complexity in men during an acute major depressive episode: analysis of heart rate dynamics. Transl Psychiatry 2011; 1, e27, doi:10.1038/tp.2011.23.

  6. Mandelbaum T, Scott DJ, Lee J, Mark RG, Malhotra A, Waikar S, Howell MD, Talmor DS. Outcome of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury using the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Crit Care Med, 2011. Preprint available online 14 July 2011. (PMID: 21765352)

  7. Nemati S, Abdala O, Bazan V, Tim-Yeh S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD. A non-parametric surrogate-based test of significance for T-wave alternans detection. IEEE Transactions On Biomedical Engineering, 58(5):1356-64, May 2011. Epub Apr 19, 2010. (doi:10.1109/TBME.2010.2047859) (PMID:20409986) (PMCID:2991534)

  8. Nemati S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD. T-wave alternans patterns during sleep in healthy, cardiac disease, and sleep apnea patients. J Electrocardiol, 44(2):126-30, Mar Apr 2011. Epub Dec 15, 2010. (doi:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.10.036) (PMID:21163493) (PMCID:3062089)

  9. Saeed M, Villarroel M, Reisner AT, Clifford G, Lehman L, Moody G, Heldt T, Kyaw TH, Moody B, Mark RG. Multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC-II): A public-access intensive care unit database. Crit Care Med, 39(5):952-960, 2011. (doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31820a92c6) (PMID:21283005) (PMCID:3124312)

  10. Yang AC, Yang CH, Hong CJ, Tsai SJ, Kuo CH, Peng C-K, Mietus JE, Goldberger AL, Thomas RJ. Sleep state instabilities in major depressive disorder: detection and quantification with electrocardiogram-based cardiopulmonary coupling analysis. Psychophysiology 2011;48:285-291. PMID: 20624250 PMCID: 2958224


  1. Campana LM, Owens RL, Clifford GD, Pittman SD, Malhotra A. Phase rectified signal averaging as a sensitive index of autonomic changes with aging. J Appl Physiol, 108(6):1668-1673, June 2010. E-print ahead of publication: March 25, 2010. (doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00013.2010) (PMID:20339014) (PMCID:2886688)

  2. Clifford GD, Nemati S, Sameni R. An artificial vector model for generating abnormal electrocardiographic rhythms. Physiol Meas, 31(5):595-609, May 2010. [IOP 'Featured Article'.] (doi:10.1088/0967-3334/31/5/001) (PMID:20308774) (PMCID:2927500)

  3. Dong J, Liu D, Zhang C, Ma J, Wang GF, Guo D, Liu Y, Zhong H, Zhang J, Peng C-K, Fang J. Automated sleep staging technique based on the empirical mode decomposition algorithm: A preliminary study. Adv Adapt Data Anal 2010; 2:267-276.

  4. Heldt T, Mukkamala R, Moody GB, Mark RG. CVSim: an open-source cardiovascular simulator for teaching and research. The Open Pacing, Electrophysiology, and Therapy Journal, 3:45-54, 2010. (doi:10.2174/1876536X01003010045) PMID: 21949555 PMCID: 3178445

  5. Hu K, Lo MT, Peng C-K, Novak V, Schmidt EA, Kumar A, Czosnyka M. Nonlinear pressure-flow relationship is able to detect asymmetry of brain blood circulation associated with midline shift. J Neurotrauma 2009;26: 227-233. PMID: 19196074 PMCID: 2788024.

  6. Ibrahim LI, Jacono FJ, Patel SR, Thomas RJ, Larkin EK, Mietus JE, Peng C-K, Goldberger AL, Redline S. Heritability of abnormalities in cardiopulmonary coupling in sleep apnea: Use of an electrocardiogram-based technique. SLEEP 2010 May;33(5):643-6. PMID: 20469806 PMCID: 2864879

  7. Kang HG, Costa MD, Priplata AA, Starobinets OV, Goldberger AL, Peng CK, Kiely DK, Cupples LA, Lipsitz LA. Frailty and the degradation of complex balance dynamics during a dual-task protocol. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009; 64:1304-11. Epub 2009 Aug 13. PMID: 19679739

  8. Lee J, Mark RG. An investigation of patterns in hemodynamic data indicative of impending hypotension in intensive care. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 9(62), 2010. (doi:10.1186/1475-925X-9-62) (PMID:20973998) (PMCID:2976741)

  9. Lin YH, Lin C, Lo MT, Lin HJ, Wu YW, Hsu RB, Chao CL, Hsu HC, Wang PC, Wu VC, Wang SS, Lee CM, Chien KL, Ho YL, Chen MF, Peng C-K. The relationship between aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen and heart rate variability parameters in heart failure patients: a potential serum marker to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and sudden cardiac death. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010;48:1821-1827. PMID: 20846104 PMCID: 3141296

  10. Lo MT, Novak V, Peng C-K, Hu K. Nonlinear phase interaction between nonstationary signals: A comparison study of methods based on Hilbert-Huang and Fourier transforms. Phys Rev E 2009;79:061924. PMID: 19658541 PMCID: 2730740.

  11. Manor B, Costa M, Hu K, Newton L, Starobinets O, Kang HG, Peng C-K, Novak V, Lipsitz LA. Physiological complexity and system adaptability: Evidence from postural control dynamics of older adults. J Appl Physiol 2010;109:1786-1791. PMID: 20947715 PMCID: 3006415 [Available on 2011/12/1]

  12. Monasterio V, Clifford GD, Laguna P, Martínez JP. A multilead scheme based on periodic component analysis for T wave alternans analysis in the ECG. Ann Biomed Eng, 38(8):2532-2541, Aug. 2010. (doi:10.1007/s10439-010-0029-z) (PMID:20387121)

  13. Nemati S, Malhotra A, Clifford GD. Data fusion for improved respiration rate estimation. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2010(926305):1-10, May 2010. (doi:10.1155/2010/926305) (PMID:20806056) (PMCID:2929127)

  14. Sayadi O, Shamsollahi MB, Clifford GD. Robust detection of premature ventricular contractions using a wave-based Bayesian framework. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 57(2):353-362, Feb. 2010. (doi:10.1109/TBME.2009.2031243) (PMID:19758851) (PMCID: 2927513)

  15. Sayadi O, Shamsollahi MB, Clifford GD. Synthetic ECG generation and Bayesian filtering using a Gaussian wave-based dynamical model. Physiol Meas, 31(10):1309-29, Oct. 2010. Epub Aug 18, 2010. (PMID:20720288) (PMCID:2927513)

  16. Thomas RJ, Mietus JE, Peng C-K, Goldberger AL, Crofford LJ, Chervin RD. Impaired sleep quality in fibromyalgia: Detection and quantification with ECG-based cardiopulmonary coupling spectrograms. Sleep Medicine 2010;11:497-498. PMID: 20015685 PMCID: 2854867


  1. Celi LA, Sarmenta L, Rotberg J, Marcelo A, Clifford GD. Mobile care (Moca) for remote diagnosis and screening. Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries, 3(1):17-21, 2009. PMID: 21822397 PMCID: 3149792

  2. Clifford GD, Long WJ, Moody GB, Szolovits P. Robust parameter extraction for decision support using multimodal intensive care data. Phil Trans Royal Soc A, 367(1877):411-429, Jan. 2009. Special issue on Signal Processing in Vital Rhythms and Signs. (doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0157) (PMID:18936019) (PMCID:2617714)

  3. Elinoff J, Talmor D, Subramaniam B, Karmpaliotis D, Goldberger AL, Malhotra A. Effects of mechanical ventilation on the electrocardiogram in adults. Lung 2008; 186::219-23. PMID: 18478291

  4. Hu K, Lo MT, Peng C-K, Novak V, Schmidt EA, Kumar A, Czosnyka M. Nonlinear pressure-flow relationship is able to detect asymmetry of brain blood circulation associated with midline shift. J. Neurotrauma 2009;26:227-233. [PDF] PMID: 19196074 PMCID: 2788024

  5. Kang HG, Costa M, Priplata AA, Starobinets OV, Goldberger AL, Peng C-K, Kiely DK, Cupples LA, Lipsitz LA. Frailty and the degradation of complex balance dynamics during a dual task protocol. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 2009 Dec;64(12):1304-11. Epub 2009 Aug 13. PMID: 19679739 PMCID: 2781784

  6. Hu K, Lo MT, Peng C-K, Novak V, Schmidt EA, Kumar A, Czosnyka M. Nonlinear pressure-flow relationship is able to detect asymmetry of brain blood circulation associated with midline shift. J Neurotrauma 2009 Feb 11;26(2):227-33. PMID: 19196074 PMCID: 2788024

  7. Li Q, Mark RG, Clifford GD. Artificial arterial blood pressure artifact models and an evaluation of a robust blood pressure and heart rate estimator. BMC Biomed Eng Online, 8(13), 2009. (doi:10.1186/1475-925X-8-13) (PMID:19586547) (PMCID:2728101)

  8. Sun J, Reisner A, Saeed M, Heldt T, Mark R. The cardiac output from blood pressure algorithms trial. Crit Care Med, 37(1):72-80, Jan. 2009. (PMID:19112280) (PMCID:3107992)

  9. Thomas RJ, Weiss MD, Mietus JE, Peng C-K, Goldberger AL, Gottlieb DJ. Prevalent hypertension and stroke in the Sleep Heart Health Study: Association with an ECG-derived spectrographic marker of cardiopulmonary coupling. Sleep 2009; 32:897-904. PMID: 19639752 PMCID: 2706909

  10. Zhang J, Yang XC, Luo L, Shao J, Zhang C, Ma J, Wang GF, Liu Y, Peng C-K, Fang J. Assessing severity of obstructive sleep apnea by fractal dimension sequence analysis of sleep EEG. Physica A 2009; 388:4407-4414.


  1. Aboukhalil A, Nielsen L, Saeed M, Mark RG, Clifford GD. Reducing false alarm rates for critical arrhythmias using the arterial blood pressure waveform. J Biomed Inform, 41(3):442-451, June 2008. (doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2008.03.003) (PMID:18440873) (PMCID: 2504518)

  2. Clifford GD, Blaya JA, Hall-Clifford R, Fraser HSF. Medical information systems: A foundation for healthcare technologies in developing countries. BMC Biomed Eng Online, 7(1):18, 2008. (doi:10.1186/1475-925X-7-18) (PMID:18547411) (PMCID:2504518)

  3. Costa M, Ghiran I, Peng C-K, Nicholson-Weller A, Goldberger AL. Complex dynamics of human red blood cell flickering: Alterations with in vivo aging. Physical Review E (Rapid Communication) 2008; 78:020901. PMID 18850779 PMCID: 2633132. [This publication was cited in Kaleidoscope, which features PRE images of special interest, and also in the Virtual Journal of Physics.]

  4. Jia X, Malhotra A, Saeed M, Mark RG, Talmor D. Risk factors for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in patients mechanically ventilated for greater than 48 hours. Chest, 133(4):853-861, Apr. 2008. (doi:10.1378/chest.07-1121) (PMID:18263691) (PMCID:2628459)

  5. Li Q, Mark RG, Clifford GD. Robust heart rate estimation from multiple asynchronous noisy sources using signal quality indices and a Kalman filter. IOP Physiol Meas, 29(1):15-32, Jan. 2008. [Awarded the Martin Black Prize for Best Paper in Physiological Measurement in 2008]. (PMID:18175857) (PMCID:2259026)

  6. Lo MT, Hu K, Liu Y, Peng C-K, Novak V. Multimodal pressure flow analysis: application of Hilbert- Huang transform in cerebral blood flow regulation. EURASIP Journal of Advances in Signal Processing 2008:785243. PMID: 18725996

  7. Neamatullah I, Douglass M, Lehman LH, Reisner A, Villarroel M, Long WJ, Szolovits P, Moody GB, Mark RG, Clifford GD. Automated de-identification of free-text medical records. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 8(32), 2008. (doi:10.1186/1472-6947-8-32) (PMID:18652655) (PMCID:2526997)

  8. Wolfberg AJ, DeRosier DJ, Roberts T, Syed Z, Clifford GD, Acker D, du Plessis AJ. A comparison of subjective and mathematical estimations of fetal heart rate variability. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 21(2):101-4, 2008. (doi:10.1080/14767050701836792) (PMID:18240077)

  9. Yeh GY, Mietus JE, Peng CK, Phillips RS, Davis RB, Wayne PM, Goldberger AL, Thomas RJ. Enhancement of sleep stability with Tai Chi exercise in chronic heart failure: preliminary findings using an ECG-based spectrogram method. Sleep Medicine 2008; 5::527-36. PMID: 17689142


  1. Lian J, Clifford GD, Messig D, Lang V. Open source model for generating RR intervals in atrial fibrillation and beyond. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 6(9):1-16, Mar. 2007. doi:10.1186/1475-925X-6-9. (PMID:17335580) (PMCID:1820785)

  2. Sameni R, Clifford GD, Shamsollahi MB, Jutten C. Multi-channel ECG and noise modeling: application to maternal and fetal ECG signals. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2007(43407):1-14, 2007. (doi:10.1155/2007/43407)

  3. Sameni R, Shamsollahi MB, Jutten C, Clifford GD. A nonlinear Bayesian filtering framework for ECG denoising. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 54(12):2172-2185, Dec. 2007. (PMID:18075033)

Conference proceedings and presentations


  1. Lee J, Scott DJ, Villarroel M, Clifford GD, Mark RG. Open-access MIMIC-II database for intensive care research. Proc 33rd IEEE EMBS, 2011; 8315-8318.

  2. Mandelbaum T, Scott DJ, Lee J, Mark RG, Howell MD, Malhotra A, Talmor D. Validation of the AKIN criteria definition using high-resolution ICU data from the MIMIC-II database. Critical Care, 2011; 15(Suppl 1): 105.

  3. Moody GB, Mark RG, Goldberger AL. PhysioNet: Physiologic Signals, Time Series, and Related Open Source Software for Basic, Clinical, and Applied Research. Proc 33rd IEEE EMBS, 2011; 8327-8330.

  4. Silva I, Lee J, Mark RG. Photoplethysmograph Quality Estimation Through Multichannel Filtering. Proc 33rd IEEE EMBS, 2011; 4361-4364.

  5. Silva I, Moody G, Celi L. Improving the quality of ECGs collected using mobile phones: The Physionet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2011. Comput Cardiol, 38 (2011) [in press].

  6. Moody BE. A rule-based method for ECG quality control. Comput Cardiol, 38 (2011) [in press].


  1. Celi L, Hug C, Villarroel M, Clifford G, Mark R. Issues with data mining: predictive modeling on critically ill patients who develop acute renal failure. Crit Care Med, Jan. 2010.

  2. Celi L, Villarroel M, Davidzon G, Galvin S, Clifford G, Galvin I, Bunton R, Szolovits P. Comparing the performance of customized mortality prediction models using local database against current standard scoring systems. Crit Care Med, Jan. 2010.

  3. Craig M, Moody B, Jia S, Villarroel M, Mark R. Matching data fragments with imperfect identifiers from disparate sources. Comput Cardiol, 37:793-796, Sept. 2010.

  4. Lee J, Mark RG. A hypotensive episode predictor for intensive care based on heart rate and blood pressure time series. Comput Cardiol, 37:81-84, Sept. 2010.

  5. Lehman L, Saeed M, Moody GB, Mark RG. Hypotension as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in ICU patients. Comput Cardiol, 37:1095-1098, Sept. 2010.

  6. Lojun SL, Sauper CJ, Medow M, Long WJ, Mark RG, Barzilay R. Investigating resuscitation code assignment in the intensive care unit using structured and unstructured data. AMIA Annu Symp Proc, 2010:467-471, 2010. (PMID:21347022)

  7. Mandelbaum T, Scott DJ, Mark RG, Howell MD, Malhutra A, Talmor DS. Outcome of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury using the AKIN criteria. Poster presentation at the Critical Care Canada Forum 2010, November 7-10, 2010, Toronto, Canada, Nov. 2010.

  8. Moody GB. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2010: Mind the gap. Comput Cardiol, 37:305-308, Sept. 2010.

  9. Silva I. PhysioNet 2010 Challenge: A robust multi-channel adaptive filtering approach to the estimation of physiological recordings. Comput Cardiol, 37:313-316, Sept. 2010.


  1. Celi LA, Villarroel M, Clifford G, Szolovits P. Local customized mortality prediction modeling for patients with acute kidney injury admitted to the intensive care unit. Presentation at the Sixth International Meeting on Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, Genova, Italy (, Oct. 2009.

  2. Chen T, Clifford GD, Mark RG. The effect of signal quality on six cardiac output estimators. Comput Cardiol, 36:197-200, Sept. 2009. (PMID:20740055) (PMCID:2926988)

  3. Moody GB, Lehman LH. Predicting acute hypotensive episodes: The 10th annual PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge. Comput Cardiol, 36:541-544, Sept. 2009. (PMID:20842209) (PMCID:2937253)


  1. Clifford GD, Nemati S, Sameni R. An artificial multi-channel model for generating abnormal electrocardiographic rhythms. Comput Cardiol, 35:773-776, Sept. 2008. (PMID:20808722) (PMCID:2929834)

  2. Dawoud F, Wagner GS, Moody G, Horácek BM. Using inverse electrocardiography to image myocardial infarction-reflecting on the 2007 PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge. J Electrocardiol 41(6):630-5 (2008 Nov-Dec). (PMID:18954610)

  3. Khaustov A, Nemati S, Clifford GD. An open-source standard T-wave alternans detector for benchmarking. Comput Cardiol, 35:509-512, Sept. 2008. (PMID:20798786) (PMCID:2927842)

  4. Lehman LH, Saeed M, Moody GB, Mark RG. Similarity-based searching in multi-parameter time series databases. Comput Cardiol, 35:653-656, Sept. 2008. (PMID:21179377) (PMCID:3004130)

  5. Li Q, Clifford GD. Suppression of false arrhythmia alarms from ICU monitors using heart rate estimation based on combined arterial blood pressure and ECG analysis. Shanghai, China, May 2008.

  6. Moody GB. The PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2008: T-wave alternans. Comput Cardiol, 35:505-508, Sept. 2008. (PMID:19779602) (PMCID:2749698)


  1. Hug C, Clifford GD. An analysis of the errors in recorded heart rate and blood pressure in the ICU using a complex set of signal quality metrics. Comput Cardiol, 34:641-645, Sept. 2007.

  2. Lehman LH, Kyaw TH, Clifford GD, Mark RG. A temporal search engine for a massive multi-parameter clinical information database. Comput Cardiol, 34:637-640, Sept. 2007.

  3. Villarroel M, Saeed A, Clifford GD, Moody GB, Mark RG. Finding relevant cases in large databases of signals, time series, and clinical data. Comput Cardiol, 34:265-268, Sept. 2007.

  4. Wolfberg AJ, Syed Z, Clifford GD, Tin A, Guttag J, du Plessis AJ. Entropy of fetal EKG associated with intrapartum fever. New England Conference on Perinatal Research, Oct. 2007.

Review Paper

  1. Peng C-K, Costa M, Goldberger AL. Adaptive data analysis of complex fluctuations in physiologic time series. Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis 2009;1:61.

Book Chapters


  1. Celi LA, Tang RJ, Villarroel MC, Davidzon G, Lester WT, Chueh HC. In Chyu MC, editor, Advances in Critical Care Engineering, chapter 10, 171-83. Multi-Science Publishing Co., Ltd., 2011.

  2. Goldberger AL. Electrocardiography. In: Longo DL et al., editors, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.

  3. Heldt T, Verghese GC, Mark RG. Mathematical modeling of physiological systems. In Batzel J, Kappel F, Bachar M, editors, Biomedical Modelling and Cardiovascular-Respiratory Control: Theory and Practice, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, chapter 1. Springer Verlag, 2011. Accepted for publication.

  4. Mirvis DM, Goldberger AL. Electrocardiography. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, editors, Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 9th edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 2011.

Electronic Publications


  1. Clifford GD, Scott DJ, Villarroel M. User Guide and Documentation for the MIMIC II Database (revision 290, 7 September 2011)

  2. Moody GB. WFDB Programmer's Guide (10th edition, revised 10 September 2011)

  3. Moody GB. WFDB Applications Guide (10th edition, revised 10 September 2011)

  4. Moody GB. WAVE User's Guide (5th edition, revised 10 September 2011)


  1. Mietus JE, Goldberger AL. Heart rate variability analysis with the HRV toolkit: basic time and frequency domain measures (26 January 2009)

  2. Moody GB. An Introduction to the PhysioBank Archives (revised 4 October 2011)

  3. Moody GB. How to set up a mirror of PhysioNet (revised 11 September 2011)

  4. Moody GB. How to create and manage a PhysioNetWorks project (15 August 2011)

  5. Moody GB. WFDB quick start for Mac OS X (Darwin) (revised 6 August 2011)

  6. Moody GB. WFDB SWIG Wrappers (revised 12 July 2011)

  7. Moody GB. Finding Records in PhysioBank using standard command-line tools (5 June 2011)

  8. Moody GB. Contributing to PhysioNet (revised 25 May 2011)

  9. Moody GB. Using the MIMIC II Database (revised 9 May 2011)

  10. Moody GB. CVSim: a cardiovascular simulator (with Catherine Dunn; revised 11 April 2011)

  11. Moody GB. Data Sharing Services on PhysioNet (8 April 2011)

  12. Moody GB. What is PHI? (8 April 2011)

  13. Moody GB. De-identification: software and test data (with Li-wei Lehman; revised 28 February 2011)

  14. Moody GB. Frequently Asked Questions about PhysioNet (revised 21 February 2011)
    The FAQ is not really a tutorial, but it includes about 20 "micro-tutorials" among the answers to about 80 questions.

  15. Moody GB. Software for Matlab and Octave: Reading and writing PhysioBank and compatible data (revised 7 December 2010)

  16. Moody GB. The WFDB Software Package: Software for viewing, analyzing, and creating recordings of physiologic signals (revised 11 August 2010)

  17. Moody GB. The WFDB Toolbox for Matlab (with Michael Craig; revised 9 August 2010)

  18. Moody GB. An Introduction to Cygwin (revised 27 July 2010)

  19. Moody GB. WFDB quick start for GNU/Linux (revised 24 March 2010)

  20. Moody GB. WFDB quick start for MS-Windows (revised 13 October 2009)

  21. Moody GB. RR Intervals, Heart Rate, and HRV Howto (revised 13 March 2009)

  22. Moody GB. An Introduction to PhysioToolkit (revised 27 February 2008)

  23. Moody GB. Digitizing Paper ECGs and Other Plots (revised 27 February 2008)

  24. Moody GB. How to obtain PhysioBank data in text form (26 February 2008)

  25. Nathanson LA, Safran C, McClennen S, Goldberger AL. ECG Wave-Maven: Self-Assessment Program for Students and Clinicians (last updated May 2011)

US Patents

  1. Goldberger AL, Costa MD, Peng C-K.
    Complexity-Based Dynamical Assay for Assessing the Toxicity and Efficacy of Pharmacological and other Therapeutic Interventions.
    US Patent 7,601,124 (issued October 13, 2009)

  2. Mietus JE, Peng C-K, Thomas RJ, Goldberger AL.
    Assessment of sleep quality and sleep disordered breathing based on cardiopulmonary coupling.
    US Patent 7,734,334 (issued June 8, 2010)

  3. Goldberger AL, Costa MD, Peng C-K.
    Complexity-based dynamical analysis of a network.
    US Patent 7,882,167 (issued February 1, 2011)

US Patent Applications

  1. Costa MD, Ghiran I, Peng C-K, Nicholson-Well A, Goldberger AL.
    Complexity-Based Analysis of Cellular Flickering.
    US Patent Application 12/457480 (filed June 12, 2009)

  2. Costa MD, Goldberger AL.
    Complexity Based Methods and Systems for Detecting Depression.
    US Patent Application (filed July 18, 2011; application number not yet received)

  3. Costa MD, Stirling LA, Niemi JB, Goldberger AL.
    Quantitative Methods and Systems for Neurological Assessment.
    US Patent Application (filed September 26, 2011; application number not yet received)