next up previous
Up: lt03 Previous: lt03


AAMI, 1994

BRUEGGEMANN et al., 1991
BRUEGGEMANN, T., ANDERSEN, D., AND SCHROEDER, R. (1991): `ST-segment analysis with ambulatory ECG monitoring: are solid state recorders better than tape cassettes?', Comput. Cardiol. 1990, pp. 173-176

CERUTTI et al., 1992
CERUTTI, S., MAINARDI, L., BIANCHI, A., SIGNORINI, M. G., AND BERTINELLI, M. (1992): `Time-variant autoregressive spectral estimation in acute ischemic episodes', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 315-318

DAVIES et al., 1997
DAVIES, R. F., GOLDBERG, A. D., FORMAN, S., PEPINE, C. J., KNATTERUD, G. L., GELLER, N., SOPKO, G., PRATT, C., DEANFIELD, J., AND CONTI, C. R. (1997): `Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia (ACIP) study two-year follow-up: outcomes of patients randomized to initial strategies of medical therapy versus revascularization', Circulation, 95, pp. 2037-2043

DIAMANTARAS et al., 1996
DIAMANTARAS, K., STAMKOPOULOS, T., MAGLAVERAS, N., AND STRINTZIS, M. (1996): `ST segment nonlinear principal component analysis for ischemia detection', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 493-496

DOWER et al., 1988
DOWER, G. E., YAKUSH, A., NAZZAL, S. B., JUTZY, R. V., AND RUIZ, C. E. (1988): `Deriving the 12-lead electrocardiogram from four (EASI) electrodes', Journal Electrocard., 21, S182-187

EMDIN et al., 1997
EMDIN, M., TADDEI, A., VARANINI, M., RACITI, M., POLA, S., MARCHESI, C., AND L'ABBATE, A. (1997): `Electrocardiographic and signal monitoring in ischaemic heart disease: state of the art and perspective', Journal Med. Eng. Techn., 21, pp. 162-165

GARCIA et al., 1996
GARCIA, J., OLMOS, S., MOODY, G. B., MARK, R. G., AND LAGUNA, P. (1996): `Adaptive estimation of Karhunen-Loève series applied to the study of ischemic ECG records', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 249-252

GARCIA et al., 2000
GARCIA, J., SORNMO, L., OLMOS, S., AND LAGUNA, P. (2000): `Automatic detection of ST-T complex changes on the ECG using filtered RMS difference series: application to ambulatory ischemia monitoring', IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 47, pp. 1195-1201

HERMES et al., 1981
HERMES, R. E., GESELOWITZ, D. B., AND OLIVER, G. C. (1981): `Development, distribution, and use of the American Heart Association database for ventricular arrhythmia detector evaluation', Comput. Cardiol. 1980, pp. 263-266

JAGER et al., 1991
JAGER, F., MARK, R. G., AND MOODY, G. B. (1991): `Analysis of transient ST segment changes during ambulatory ECG monitoring', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 453-456

JAGER et al., 1992
JAGER, F., MARK, R. G., MOODY, G. B., AND DIVJAK, S. (1992): `Analysis of transient ST segment changes during ambulatory ECG monitoring using the Karhunen-Loève transform', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 691-694

JAGER, 1994
JAGER, F. (1994): `Automated detection of transient ST-segment changes during ambulatory ECG-monitoring', PhD Thesis, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia

JAGER et al., 1995
JAGER, F., MOODY, G. B., AND MARK, R. G. (1995): `Characterization of transient ischemic and non-ischemic ST segment changes', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 721-724

JAGER et al., 1996a
JAGER, F., MOODY, G. B., BLAŠZINA, I., ZUPIŠC, I., AND MARK, R. G. (1996): `Characterization of temporal patterns of transient ischemic ST change episodes during ambulatory ECG monitoring', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 681-684

JAGER et al., 1996b
JAGER, F., MOODY, G. B., TADDEI, A., ANTOLIŠC, G., ZABUKOVEC, M., ŠKRJANC, M., EMDIN, M., AND MARK, R. G. (1996): `Development of a long term database for assessing the performance of transient ischemia detectors', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 481-484

JAGER et al., 1998a
JAGER, F., MOODY, G. B., AND MARK, R. G. (1998): `Detection of transient ST-Segment episodes during ambulatory ECG-monitoring', Comp. and Biom. Res. 31, pp. 305-322

JAGER et al., 1998b
JAGER, F., MOODY, G. B., SMRDEL, A., AND MARK, R. G. (1998): `Detection of transient ST segment changes during ambulatory ST monitoring', US-Slovene joint project, P #95-158, Final Report, Ljubljana

JAGER et al., 1998c
JAGER, F., MOODY, G. B., TADDEI, A., ANTOLIŠC, G., EMDIN, M., SMRDEL, A., GLAVI´C, B., MARCHESI, C., AND MARK, R. G. (1998): `A long-term ST database for development and evaluation of ischemia detectors', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 301-304

JAGER et al., 2000
JAGER, F., TADDEI, A., EMDIN, M., ANTOLIŠC, G., DORN, R., MOODY, G. B., GLAVI´C, B., SMRDEL, A., VARANINI, M., ZABUKOVEC, M., BORDIGIAGO, S., MARCHESI, C., AND MARK, R. G. (2000): `The long-term ST database: A research resource for algorithm development and physiologic studies of transient myocardial ischemia', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 841-844

KNOEBEL et al., 1989
KNOEBEL, S. B., CRAWFORD, M. H., AND DUNN, M. I. (1989): `Guideliness for ambulatory electrocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association task force on assessment of diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular procedures (subcommittee on ambulatory electrocardiography)', J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 13, pp. 249-258

LAGUNA et al., 1995
LAGUNA, P., MOODY, G. B., AND MARK, R. G. (1995): `Analysis of the cardiac repolarization period using the KL transform: applications on the ST-T database', Comput. Cardiol. 1994, pp. 233-236

LAGUNA et al., 1996
LAGUNA, P., RUIZ, M., MOODY, G. B., AND MARK, R. G. (1996): `Repolarization alternans detection using the KL transform and the beatquency spectrum', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 673-676

LAGUNA et al., 1997
LAGUNA, P., MARK, R. G., GOLDBERGER, A., AND MOODY, G. B. (1997): `A database for evaluation of algorithms for measurement of QT and other waveform intervals in the ECG', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 673-676

MAGLAVERAS et al., 1998
MAGLAVERAS, N., STAMKOPOULOS, T., PAPPAS, C., AND STRINTZ, M. (1998): `An adaptive backpropagation neural network for real-time ischemia episodes detection: development and performance analysis using the European ST-T database', IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 45, pp. 805-813

MARCHESI, C. (1986): `The European Community concerted action on Ambulatory Monitoring', Journal Med. Eng. Techn., 10, pp. 131-134

MARK et al., 1982
MARK, R. G., SCHLUTER, P. S., MOODY, G. B., DEVLIN, P. H., AND CHERNOFF, D. (1982): `An annotated ECG database for evaluating arrhythmia detectors', Frontiers of Engineering in Health Care, pp. 205-210

MOODY and MARK, 1982
MOODY, G. B., AND MARK, R. G. (1982): `Development and evaluation of a 2-lead ECG analysis program', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 39-44

MOODY and MARK, 1990
MOODY, G. B., AND MARK, R. G. (1990): `QRS morphology representation and noise estimation using the Karhunen-Loève transform', Comput. Cardiol. 1989, pp. 269-272

MOODY and MARK, 1991
MOODY, G. B., AND MARK, R. G. (1991): `The MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database on CD-ROM and software for use with it', Comput. Cardiol. 1990, pp. 185-188

MORABITO et al., 1992
MORABITO, M., MACERATA, A., TADDEI, A., AND MARCHESI, C. (1992): `QRS morphological classification using artificial neural networks', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 181-184

PRESEDO et al., 1996a
PRESEDO, J., FERNANDEZ, E. A., VILA, J., AND BARRO, S. (1996): `Cycles of ECG parameter evolution during ischemic episodes', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 489-492

PRESEDO et al., 1996b
PRESEDO, J., VILA, J., BARRO, S., PALACIOS, F., RUIS, R., TADDEI, A., AND EMDIN, M. (1996): `Fuzzy modelling of the expert's knowledge in ECG-based ischaemia detection', Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 77, pp. 63-75

SILIPO et al., 1993
SILIPO, R., GORI, M., TADDEI, A., VARANINI, M., AND MARCHESI, C. (1993): `Comparing statistical to neural classifiers of the QRS morphologies', in Mancini, Cristalli, Fioretti, Bedini (Eds): `Biotelemetry XII', pp. 263-271

SILIPO et al., 1995a
SILIPO, R., GORI, M., TADDEI, A., VARANINI, M., AND MARCHESI, C. (1995): `Classification of arrhythmic events in ambulatory electrocardiogram using artificial neural networks', Comp. and Biom. Res., 28, pp. 308-318

SILIPO et al., 1995b
SILIPO, R., TADDEI, A., AND MARCHESI, C. (1995): `Continuous monitoring and detection of ST-T changes in ischemic patients', Comput. Cardiol. 1994, pp. 225-258

SILIPO, R., AND MARCHESI, C. (1996): `Neural techniques for ST-T change detection', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 677-680

SMRDEL and JAGER, 1998
SMRDEL, A., AND JAGER, F. (1998): `Multipass algorithm for detection of transient ST segment changes in electrocardiograms', Electrotechnical review, 65, pp. 289-295

STAMKOPOULOS et al., 1998
STAMKOPOULOS, T., DIAMANTARAS, K., MAGLAVERAS, N., AND STRINTZIS, M. (1998): `ECG analysis using nonlinear PCA neural networks for ischemia detection', IEEE Trans. Signal Proc., 46, pp. 3058-3067

TADDEI et al., 1992a
TADDEI, A., EMDIN, M., VARANINI, M., MACERATE, A., PISANI, P., SANTARCANGELO, E., AND MARCHESI, C. (1992): `An approach to cardiorespiratory activity monitoring through principal component analysis', J. Amb. Monit., 5, pp. 167-173

TADDEI et al., 1992b
TADDEI, A., DISTANTE, G., EMDIN, M., PISANI, P., MOODY, G. B., ZEELENBERG, C., AND MARCHESI, C. (1992): `The European ST-T database: standard for evaluating systems for the analysis of ST-T changes in ambulatory electrocardiography', Eur. Heart J., 13, pp. 1164-1172.

TADDEI et al., 1995
TADDEI, A., COSTANTINO, G., SILIPO, R., EMDIN, M., AND MARCHESI, C. (1995): `A system for the detection of ischemic episodes in ambulatory ECG', Comput. Cardiol., pp. 705-708

TADDEI et al., 1997
TADDEI, A., EMDIN, M., VARANINI, M., NASSI, G., BERTINELLI, M., PICANO, E., AND MARCHESI, C. (1997): `Imaging-documented cardiovascular signal database for assessing methods for ischaemia analysis', Journal Med. Eng. Techn., 21, pp. 169-173

Table: Files of LTST DB records
\begin{table}\ \\
\ \\
{\small N = number of ECG leads (2 or 3); xxx = patient number; y = record number}\end{table}

Table: ST segment annotation codes used for LTST DB
\begin{table}\ \\
\ \\
{\small [cc] = type... (0, 1 or 2); llll = ST level, $\mu$V;
dddd = ST deviation, $\mu$V}\end{table}

Table: Records of LTST DB: 80 patients in 86 records. Patients' data with numbers of annotated ST segment events according to annotation protocol A are presented
\begin{table}\ \\

sNxxxy: N = number of ECG leads (2 or 3), xxx = patient number, y = record number; S = sex; A = age; Isc. = ischaemic ST episodes in leads 0, 1, 2; H.R. = heart-rate related ST episodes in leads 0, 1, 2; ST/I = combined ST change episodes and combined ischaemic ST episodes; A/C = ST shifts due to axis shifts in leads 0, 1, 2 (upper), and due to conduction changes in leads 0, 1, 2 (lower); diagnosis: 2-VCAD = 2-vessel coronary artery disease; 3-VCAD = 3-vessel coronary artery disease; AAA = abdominal aortic aneurysm; AAMI = anterior acute myocardial infarction; A = angina; AF = atrial fibrillation; ASTH = asthma; BPH = benign prostatic hypertrophy; CAD = coronary artery disease; CHF = congestive heart failure; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRF = chronic renal failure; CVA = stroke; DCM = dilated cardiomyopathy; EA = effort angina; HC = hypercholesterolaemia; HL = hyperlipidaemia; HTN = hypertension; IDDM = insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; ILMI = inferolateral myocardial infarction; LBBB = left bundle branch block; LHTN = labile hypertension; LIMA-LADCA = left internal mammary artery graft to left anterior descending coronary artery; LVDD = left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; LVF = left ventricular failure; LVH = left ventricular hypertrophy; MA = mixed angina; MHTN = mild hypertension; MI = myocardial infarction; MS = mitral stenosis; MVP = mitral valve prolapse; NoCAD = no coronary artery disease; NOHCM = non obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; OA = osteoarthritis; OHCM = obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; PAI = peripheral arterial insufficiency; PCABG = previous coronary artery bypass grafting; PCVAx4 = previous strokes x4; PFO = patent foramen ovale; PFPB = previous femoral-popliteal bypass; Pgn = pregnant; PMA = Prinzmetal's angina; PMI = previous myocardial infarction; PPT = palpitations; PRT = prostatitis; PSMI = previous subendocardial myocardial infarction; PTURP = previous transurethral resection of the prostate; RA = resting angina; SS = spinal stenosis; SYE = syncopal episodes; SY = syncope; SyX = syndrome X; SZ = seizure disorder; TIA = transient ischaemic attack; UA = unstable angina; WPW = Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome

Table: Overall numbers and durations of annotated ST segment episodes in LTST DB
\begin{table}\ \\
\ \\
{\small Ischaemi...
I$_{A}$(h:m:s) = duration of average combined ischaemic ST episode}\end{table}

Figure: Flow of data through annotation phases and signal processing methodology of records of LTST DB
\begin{figure}\ \\

Figure: Definition of significant ST shift and significant ST episode, schematic representation of tracking of ST reference level and representation of annotation protocols. (a) Manual tracking of time-varying ST reference level in ST level function of ECG lead, except for deviations due to transient ST episodes. Local-reference annotations are placed at intervals in non-ischaemic data. (b) Straight-line segments connecting local-reference annotations produce ST reference function. (c) ST deviation function is obtained as change in ST level function from which ST reference function is subtracted. GR = global reference; R = local reference
\begin{figure}\ \\
\ \\

Figure: Example of annotation of lead 1 in record s20271 from time 17:26:00 to 17:50:00. Abbreviated SEMIA's `lead', `KLT' and `data' windows (from top to bottom) are shown. (a) ST level function (resolution: 100 $\mu$V unit$^{-1}$) and piecewise linearly interpolated ST reference function (above), heart rate (below), local reference annotations (LR) defining knot points in ST level function, axis shift annotations (AX) indicating significant ST shifts, and ST episode annotations (BI, XI, EI) indicating significant ischaemic ST episode according to protocol A. (b) Time series of first five (from top to bottom) QRS complex KLT coefficients (resolution: 1 SD unit$^{-1}$), and markers 0 and 1 corresponding to both axis shift annotations. (c) Original ECG signals (resolution: 1 mV unit$^{-1}$ X 160 ms unit$^{-1}$) corresponding to local reference (LR) prior to ischaemic ST episode ((A); time: 17:35:15.364) and to extrema (XI, M) of ischaemic ST episode ((B); time: 17:40:58.868), where centre heart-beats are time-averaged heart-beats over 16 s
\begin{figure}\ \\
\ \\

next up previous
Up: lt03 Previous: lt03